Ahara being one of the Upasthambha supports our Shareera for day to day activities and acts as Bala and Prakriti Dayaka, When it is consumed by following the rules and regulations. Wrong diet methods which are widely followed in this modern era result into Ajirna (Indigestion) which is the source of many diseases. Charakokta Ahara Vidhi Vidhana is not only a scientific method to maintain physical health but also to Maintain good mental health which results into proper digestion of the food which inturn promotes health and prevents many diseases. An attempt is made here to understand the physiology behind these rules and regulations and how they affect the process of digestion.
Physiology (/ˌfɪziˈɒlədʒi/; from Ancient Greek φύσις (phúsis) 'nature, origin', and -λογία (-logía) 'study of') is the scientific study of functions and mechanisms in a living system. As a sub-discipline of biology, physiology focuses on how organisms, organ systems, individual organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical and physical functions in a living system. According to the classes of organisms, the field can be divided into medical physiology, animal physiology, plant physiology, cell physiology, and comparative physiology.
Central to physiological functioning are biophysical and biochemical processes, homeostatic control mechanisms, and communication between cells. Physiological state is the condition of normal function. In contrast, pathological state refers to abnormal conditions, including human diseases.
Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning of plants. Closely related fields include plant morphology, plant ecology, phytochemistry, cell biology, genetics, biophysics, and molecular biology. Fundamental processes of plant physiology include photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrition, tropisms, nastic movements, photoperiodism, photomorphogenesis, circadian rhythms, seed germination, dormancy, and stomata function and transpiration. Absorption of water by roots, production of food in the leaves, and growth of shoots towards light are examples of plant physiology.
Human physiology seeks to understand the mechanisms that work to keep the human body alive and functioning, through scientific enquiry into the nature of mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems within systems. The endocrine and nervous systems play major roles in the reception and transmission of signals that integrate function in animals. Homeostasis is a major aspect with regard to such interactions within plants as well as animals. The biological basis of the study of physiology, integration refers to the overlap of many functions of the systems of the human body, as well as its accompanied form. It is achieved through communication that occurs in a variety of ways, both electrical and chemical.
Changes in physiology can impact the mental functions of individuals. Examples of this would be the effects of certain medications or toxic levels of substances. Change in behavior as a result of these substances is often used to assess the health of individuals.
Much of the foundation of knowledge in human physiology was provided by animal experimentation. Due to the frequent connection between form and function, physiology and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
Nineteenth-century physiologists such as Michael Foster, Max Verworn, and Alfred Binet, based on Haeckel's ideas, elaborated what came to be called "general physiology", a unified science of life based on the cell actions, later renamed in the 20th century as cell biology.
In the 20th century, biologists became interested in how organisms other than human beings function, eventually spawning the fields of comparative physiology and ecophysiology. Major figures in these fields include Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew. Most recently, evolutionary physiology has become a distinct subdiscipline.
Recently, there have been intense debates about the vitality of physiology as a discipline (Is it dead or alive?). If physiology is perhaps less visible nowadays than during the golden age of the 19th century, it is in large part because the field has given birth to some of the most active domains of today's biological sciences, such as neuroscience, endocrinology, and immunology. Furthermore, physiology is still often seen as an integrative discipline, which can put together into a coherent framework data coming from various different domains.
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Dr. Nataro's multi-disciplinary research program focuses on enteric bacterial infections, principally diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella spp. His seminal observations include the discovery of enteroaggregative and diffusely adherent E. coli pathotypes, the introduction of the first molecular probe for enteropathogenic E. coli, the discovery of a large number of virulence factors and mechanisms, and the construction of several vaccine candidates. He has made pivotal contributions to understanding the roles of diarrheagenic E. coli in human disease. Dr. Nataro has trained a large number of undergraduate, graduate, medical (including three MD/PhD students), as well as many post-doctoral fellows and junior faculty. While Head, Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Pediatrics at the University of Maryland, he mentored several young faculty to their first NIH awards. 2b1af7f3a8