Recommendations for Dog Introductions - Introductions with other dogs can be a bit tricky with Pit Bulls. Some Pit Bulls simply will not get along with other dogs. Others may only get along with dogs of the opposite sex or may get along with a few select dogs. There are some Pit Bulls who have poor greeting behavior, but when carefully introduced they may end up doing fine with other dogs. Then there are Pit Bulls who are very dog friendly. It is important to recognize your Pit Bull's level of tolerance for other dogs.When considering introductions, remember that some Pit Bulls do not enjoy the company of other dogs. It may not be advisable in some situations to introduce dogs at all. Respect each dog's personality and do not push dogs to 'be friends."How to Introduce your Pit Bull to Another DogParallel leash-walking, on neutral territory with two handlers is a great way to introduce dogs. Neutral territory means an area where neither dog has been or where neither dog resides. An unfamiliar, neutral territory is best to avoid territorial behavior in either dog. Both dogs should be wearing properly fitted collars and be on nylon or leather leashes. Prong collars, choke chains, and flex-leads should not be used when introducing Pit Bulls.While taking a short walk, allow the dogs to curve around in a natural manner. Both handlers should have a firm hold of their leashes, however, they should try to maintain a U-shaped bend in the lead. Taut, tight leashes may communicate tension to the dogs and should be avoided if possible. Avoid face-face, head-on introductions between the dogs. Instead, walk parallel to each other, a few feet apart, and alternate which dog is ahead of the other. Also, do not allow a dog to greet another dog if he/she is dragging you towards the other dog or is misbehaving in any way (pulling, jumping, or lunging). Doing so will result in training the dog to misbehave to gain access to the other dogs! The dog does not make the decision as to whom he will meet and when. You do!If the dogs appear to be friendly to each other, allow brief sniffing with one dog perpendicular or "T-shaped" to the other. After a brief sniffing, each dog should be called away by the handlers. If either dog stiffens, stands up on its toes, or shows any aggressive posturing, call the dogs away immediately and interrupt the interaction. It is important to interrupt before things go wrong so that you can preserve the possibility of a successful interaction at a later time. It might be necessary to take several walks, in different locations, over time. Multiple introductions in this manner give you a better read for how the dogs will do. Do not rush this process if the introductions seem 'iffy' in any way. Stop the introduction if either dog is showing signs of fear or aggression. Signs of fear or aggression can include: raised hackles, stiff posturing, lip curling, growling, air snapping, tail tucked between legs, one dog avoiding the other or wanting to hide behind the handler, lunging, or freezing.If the leash walking is successful, it may then be appropriate to go to a fenced area and have one dog on leash, and one off. One handler might work obedience with the leashed dog, while letting the other dog roam around, allowing them to get used to each other's presence and scent. Usually in this scenario, the resident dog is loose, and the new dog is leashed. This gives one dog the ability to safely check things out and move away as needed while you maintain control of the other dog. Make sure the yard or fenced area is free of items that may possibly trigger a fight such as high-value toys, bones, rawhides, etc.When introducing dogs on leash, make sure that the leashes do not become tangled. Entangled leashes can increase tension and result in a conflict between dogs.Off-Leash Play: Keeping it Safe and Fun!If the dogs appear to be getting along and your leash walks have been successful, then you might try both dogs off leash. This should ONLY be done in a fenced, fully enclosed area. Always make sure that both dogs are wearing appropriately fitted collars and that there are two handlers present in case there is a conflict between dogs. Also keep in mind that Pit Bull play can be rough and that it is important to periodically interrupt the play before it escalates into a conflict. The handlers can interrupt the play simply by doing some recalls and then releasing the dogs to go play again. What a great opportunity to practice an important obedience skill - the recall - amid distraction!We recommended having two handlers present when introducing a Pit Bull dog to another dog. A squirt bottle can be handy to deter inappropriate behavior, however, keep in mind that it will not stop a fight if one ensues. A water squirt bottle can be used as a mild deterrent for mouthy, mounting, or other inappropriate behaviors. Handlers of Pit Bull dogs should be prepared if a fight occurs. For more information on how to prevent a fight and how to break one up if it occurs visit What if My Pit Bull Doesn't Play Well With Others?Some Pit Bulls will not play well with other dogs, particularly in an off-leash situation. If you find that your dog gets too aroused during off-leash play, you might limit the time the dogs are off-leash together. For example: if you observe that your dog gets over stimulated after about 15 minutes of playtime, then stop the play after 5 or 10 minutes, before the dog gets over stimulated. Make sure you are praising your dog for appropriate play skills when he demonstrates them. In addition, make sure you select dogs with very good social skills for your Pit Bull to interact with!Information provided by and
Manson, who had access to malaria patients in London, had observed that it was only when blood taken from such patients began to cool that the flagellated forms and subsequent fertilization, as described by MacCallum, appeared and concluded that further development must occur outside the human body in another host, probably a mosquito. Ross, having returned to India, examined several thousand mosquitoes from endemic areas without any success but, remembering Laveran's dictum 'follow the pigment' and Manson's advice to 'follow the flagellum', a reference to the flagella of the male gamete, he eventually found pigmented bodies, which he called spores, on the stomach wall of a mosquito experimentally fed on an infected patient. Ross was no entomologist (in fact the only book he had on entomology was one written for anglers) so he classified the mosquitoes he was studying as grey or barred-back (A), brindled (B), and dappled-winged (C). We now know that the grey mosquitoes were culicines and that the dappled-winged mosquitoes were anophelines. Grey mosquitoes were very common but never contained the pigmented spores. On the other hand the rarer 'dapple-winged' mosquitoes, after being fed on a malaria patient, were found to contain pigmented bodies that ruptured releasing 'rods' that invaded the mosquito's salivary glands. Ross had now made the crucial break-through and had found developmental stages of human malaria parasites in anopheline mosquitoes and, in his letters, he calls August 20th 1897 'Mosquito day' [31, 32]. Ross was on the brink of demonstrating that anopheline mosquitoes could transmit human malaria but unfortunately he was not able to complete his studies because at this crucial stage he was posted to Calcutta where there was very little malaria . He did, however, have access to laboratory facilities and, remembering that in 1894 Manson had mentioned the possibility of using malaria parasites of birds in his investigations, he turned his attention to an avian malaria parasite, Proteosoma relictum (now called Plasmodium relictum), common in many species of birds including crows and sparrows. This parasite, he discovered, was transmitted by his 'grey' (culicine) mosquitoes, probably Culex fatigans. Of 242 'grey' mosquitoes fed on infected birds, 178 developed pigmented spores. Ross concluded that mosquitoes fed on infected birds took up male and female gametocytes which fertilized in the mosquito gut and developed into spores on the surface of the mosquito's gut within which rod-like structures were produced that invaded the mosquito's salivary glands and were injected into a new host when the infected mosquito fed. His results were made public in 1898 [35, 36]. Ross surmised correctly that human malaria was probably transmitted in the same way and later wrote that 'The triumph of 20 August was now completed and crowned by that of 9 July 1898' . These experiments finally convinced Manson, that malaria was transmitted through the bite of a mosquito contrary to his earlier opinion that the infective stages were discharged into water. He nevertheless still thought that discharge of infective stages into water was the way that filiarial worms were transmitted until it was shown that they too were transmitted via the bite of a mosquito by George Carmichael Low in 1900 .
Eating mindfully is about bringing full awareness to each plate or bite of food. It begins with the first thought about food and lasts until the final bite is swallowed and the consequence of the episode is experienced. Some of the following suggestions will be useful in teaching methods to eat mindfully:
Denise Richards refused to do a topless scene which wasn't in the original script. During filming, director Paul Verhoeven told her that he had written new scenes for her, including a love scene, which would require nudity. Despite the fact that this was only her first big-budget film, she said no because she didn't think her being nude related to her character or the movie. But she did go topless for a lesbian sex scene a year later in Wild Things (1998) and then she posed fully nude for Playboy in 2004 when her career faltered. 2b1af7f3a8