SIV/HIV has diverse effects on the entire immune system of the host. Although many details of HIV infection have been elucidated, the mechanisms of local gut injuries, which are key events observed in AIDS, remain incompletely understood. Here we described for the first time, some different inflammatory and immunopathogenic changes in the epithelium of the intestine induced by infection of SIVmac251, as well as the ART effects on these changes.
Daniel S. Sutherland: After publishing a number of books on the Civil War, I decided I needed a break. I pulled out an art history book and went to a chapter on Whistler. It was a fascinating story, and I wound up devoting the following six or seven years to him. I had an enormous learning curve that stretched out over a long period of time. I immediately set out to learn the methodology of how to write a biography. I read all the previous biographies of Whistler, and practically all those I could find on anyone and everyone he knew.
In ART treated SIV infected monkeys, chronic intestinal inflammation is reduced to varying degrees. The extent of inflammation, however, is significantly lower in the intestinal tissues of ART treated SIV infected monkeys than untreated SIV infected monkeys. Even though the SIV induced immune activation and inflammation in the intestinal tissues was effectively down regulated in ART treated infected monkeys, the drastic reduction in lymphocyte counts due to SIV infection is not reversed by early administration of ART. ART may not fully prevent chronic intestinal inflammation in ART treated macaques, which is a small portion of the SIV induced immune activation and inflammation in the gastrointestinal tissues. In the early stages of infection, SIV induces high viral loads in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, which in turn, might overwhelm the host immune system. Moreover, non-specific activation of T cells in SIV infected hosts may in turn enhance SIV induced T cell death. d2c66b5586